The Quantum Theif Wiki

A Copyclan is a group of gogols copied from a single person, usually a Sobornost Founder. The original gogol is called the Prime. If a gogol in a copyclan is not the Prime, they are usually designated by an uncapitalized last name: i.e. vasilevs gogol copies of Anton Vasilev, pellegrinis are gogol copies of Joséphine Pellegrini, and chens are gogol copies of Matjek Chen. Sobornost Founder gogols are further differentiated by branches that diverge off of the main line at important experiences.  

In some cases, a Founder gogol who is not the Prime may act in the Prime's stead, such as the Pellegrini Mieli made a deal with on Venus. In The Causal Angel (le Flambeur book 3), it is further described that every Sobornost Founder gogol has a certain amount of "Prime Aspect" (a phrase also used to denote a Prime acting in his or her full power) depending upon how old (how generationally close to the original) they are. Older gogols have more Prime Aspect and thus higher access and more power by way of that acces and by way of Xiao, the reflexive respect given to them by any Sobornost gogol. 

Anybody with the right resources can make a copyclan of themselves or other people. The gogols in a copyclan may be complete mental clones or partials